Thursday, 10 November 2016

Developmental differences in cognitive control of social information

Andrea Marotta (Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome)
Maria Casagrande (Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome)

Paper highlights:-
- We examined the developmental differences in the ability to exert cognitive control on social and non-social directional information

- Evidence of age-related differences in the inhibitory control of attention was only observed with social eye-gaze distracters

- Inhibitory mechanisms of social attention continue to improve along development

Keywords: arrow, attention, children, eye‐gaze
Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.2005

Associations between early maternal sensitivity and children's sleep throughout early childhood

Émilie Tétreault, (University of Montreal)
Andrée-Anne Bouvette-Turcot, (University of Montreal)
Annie Bernier, (University of Montreal)
Heidi Bailey (University of Guelph)

Paper highlights:-
- Associations between three dimensions of early maternal sensitivity and children's sleep from 1 to 4 years of age were investigated.

- Maternal sensitivity was positively associated with children's sleep between 2 and 4 years, but not at 12 and 18 months.

- The results suggest that child age could be a key factor in the associations between maternal behavior and children's sleep.

Keywords: child sleep, early childhood, maternal sensitivity 

Link to article
doi 10.1002/icd.2004

Family members' helping behavior: Alliance formations during naturalistic polyadic conflicts

Ryan J. Persram (Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal)

Nina Howe (Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal)
Sandra Della Porta (Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal)
Hildy S. Ross (Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo)

Paper Highlights:
- Conflicts involving three or more family members occurs quite often at home.
- Alliances are a common role that family members assume in conflict, as they try to achieve a favourable outcome for their side.
- Children's involvement both as initiators and additional parties highlight their learning of various complex conflict behaviours in childhood.

Keywords: alliance, context, family relations, social interaction

The role of fantasy–reality distinctions in preschoolers' learning from educational video

Rebekah A. Richert (University of California)

Molly A. Schlesinger (University of California)

Paper Highlights:-

1. Over the preschool years, children come to understand what aspects of animated programs are and are not possible in the real world.
2. Preschoolers learn problem-solving skills from animated shows when they have a clear boundary between fantasy and reality.
3. Engaging with moderate fantastical content in animated programs can support abstract thinking.

Keywords: educational media, fantasy-reality, learning, analogical transfer, cognitive development 

Link to article

Thursday, 11 August 2016

Volume 25, Issue 4, July/August 2016

The Moderation Role of Self-perceived Maternal Empathy in Observed Mother–Child Collaborative Problem Solving

Ebenézer A. de Oliveira (Department of Psychology, Malone University)

Emily A. Jackson (Department of Psychology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania)

Paper Highlights

  • This study examined whether various forms of observed maternal support would decrease linearly with increase in child age or motor skill, and increase linearly as the observed problem-solving task became more difficult. The study also tested the moderation role of maternal self-perceived empathy in the maternal support during mother-child problem solving.
  • Teachers rated children's motor skills; verbal and physical support were systematically observed during a co-constructive collaborative problem solving task. Mothers diminished verbal support as children aged. Also, higher teacher ratings of children's motor skill related negatively to lower maternal cognitive support, consistent with the notion of scaffolding. Mothers reporting higher empathy increased their cognitive and physical support as task difficulty also increased.
  • Results suggest that more empathetic mothers provide support that is neither excessive nor inadequate, but just right, based on objective task difficulty. When participating in joint problem-solving tasks with young children, mothers (and other adults) are encouraged to: (1) be sensitive to children's cognitive perspective and emotional state, (2) value, encourage, and praise children's efforts, and (3) adjust amount of support not only based on children's age, but also on their skill level and task difficulty
Author keywords: collaborative problem solving, scaffolding, maternal empathy, child motor skills, preschoolers, mother-child dyads 

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1993

An embodiment perspective on number-space mapping in Dutch 3.5-year-old children

Jaccoline E. van 't Noordende (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
M(Chiel). J. M. Volman (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
Paul P. M. Leseman (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
Evelyn H. Kroesbergen (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)

Paper Highlights

  • This study investigates if number-space mapping direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance.
  • Block adding, subtracting and counting tasks show that early number-space mapping is related to ipsilateral hand use.
  • It can be concluded that early number-space mapping is embodied: it is not fixed, but related to the situation.
Author keywords: number, space, counting, embodiment 
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1995