Thursday, 11 August 2016

Volume 25, Issue 4, July/August 2016

The Moderation Role of Self-perceived Maternal Empathy in Observed Mother–Child Collaborative Problem Solving

Ebenézer A. de Oliveira (Department of Psychology, Malone University)

Emily A. Jackson (Department of Psychology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania)

Paper Highlights

  • This study examined whether various forms of observed maternal support would decrease linearly with increase in child age or motor skill, and increase linearly as the observed problem-solving task became more difficult. The study also tested the moderation role of maternal self-perceived empathy in the maternal support during mother-child problem solving.
  • Teachers rated children's motor skills; verbal and physical support were systematically observed during a co-constructive collaborative problem solving task. Mothers diminished verbal support as children aged. Also, higher teacher ratings of children's motor skill related negatively to lower maternal cognitive support, consistent with the notion of scaffolding. Mothers reporting higher empathy increased their cognitive and physical support as task difficulty also increased.
  • Results suggest that more empathetic mothers provide support that is neither excessive nor inadequate, but just right, based on objective task difficulty. When participating in joint problem-solving tasks with young children, mothers (and other adults) are encouraged to: (1) be sensitive to children's cognitive perspective and emotional state, (2) value, encourage, and praise children's efforts, and (3) adjust amount of support not only based on children's age, but also on their skill level and task difficulty
Author keywords: collaborative problem solving, scaffolding, maternal empathy, child motor skills, preschoolers, mother-child dyads 

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1993

An embodiment perspective on number-space mapping in Dutch 3.5-year-old children

Jaccoline E. van 't Noordende (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
M(Chiel). J. M. Volman (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
Paul P. M. Leseman (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
Evelyn H. Kroesbergen (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)

Paper Highlights

  • This study investigates if number-space mapping direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance.
  • Block adding, subtracting and counting tasks show that early number-space mapping is related to ipsilateral hand use.
  • It can be concluded that early number-space mapping is embodied: it is not fixed, but related to the situation.
Author keywords: number, space, counting, embodiment 
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1995

Wednesday, 13 July 2016

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Development and Stability of Executive Functions in Children of Preschool Age: A Longitudinal Study of Japanese Twins

Keiko K. Fujisawa (Department of Education, Faculty of Letters, Keio University)
Naoya Todo (National Institute for Academic Degrees and Quality Enhancement of Higher Education, Tokyo)
Juko Ando (Department of Education, Faculty of Letters, Keio University)

Paper Highlights:

  • Etiology of the development of executive functions during preschool years was investigated using longitudinal and multivariate behavioral genetic analyses.
  • The development and stability of executive functions were brought about by both genetic and environmental influences.
  • Findings highlighted the fact that preschool period is an important transitional stage for the development of executive functions

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1994

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

The Maternal (Non) Responsiveness Questionnaire: Initial Factor Structure and Validation

Esther Leerkes (Human Development and Family Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
Jin Qu (Human Development and Family Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro)

Paper highlights

  • In this paper  the reliability and validity of the newly-developed Maternal (Non)Responsiveness Questionnaire (MRQ) was examined
  • Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis were used. Three-factor structure was confirmed.
  • The non-responsiveness scale demonstrated the best  convergent and predicative validity, and can be used as a supplement for observational measures of maternal responsiveness.

Author keywords: maternal responsiveness, self report, infant crying

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1992

Development of Rigid Motion Perception in Response to Radially Expanding Optic Flow

Erika Izumi (Graduate school of modern society and culture, Niigata University)
Nobu Shirai (Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University)
So Kanazawa (Department of Psychology, Japan Women's University)
Masami K. Yamaguchi (Department of psychology, Chuo University)

Paper Highlights

  • The main question of this paper is development of rigidity perception in response to radial optic flow.
  • We compared the perceptions of object rigidity in response to radial flows and results suggest that the perception of rigidity is similar in 9–12 years children and adults.
  • The main finding is the ability to perceive rigidity based on the speed gradient of a radial flow develops among childhood
Author keywords: development, elementary school children, rigidity, speed gradient, radially expanding optic flow

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1989

Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-cognitive Development in Korean Children

Kijoo Cha (Early Childhood Education, Gachon University)

Paper Highlights:-

  • The present study examined interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes in about 1,620 Korean children with three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first two years of life.
  • Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) demonstrated moderate to low degrees of stability in negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes,  declining from infancy to toddlerhood. 
  • Responsive parenting predicted higher levels of subsequent child communication (in infancy and toddlerhood), and infants’ higher problem-solving ability predicted higher responsive parenting in toddlerhood. 
  • These findings emphasize the importance of providing warm and responsive parenting, especially during the first year of life.
Author keywords: negative emotionality, reciprocity, responsive parenting, child gender, stability of temperament

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1990